By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language learn. it's also appropriate to be used because the basic textual content in a direction on Polish morphology (although routines would have to be supplied by means of the instructor).
Phonological and morphological tactics are given particular remedy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation goal at an entire description of all ordinary and such a lot abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of kinds are liberally supplemented with comments referring to derivation, utilization, and adjustments among Polish and English.
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Additional info for A concise grammar of Polish
Examples with grammatical environment indicated: Before Dental Before Non-Dental las 'forest' kwiat 'flower' Before locative case ending: w lesie 'in the forest' w kwiecie 'in the flower' widział 'see (3 sg. masc. past)' Before virile past tense ending: widzieli (3pl. masc. past) biały 'white' Before i/e word-formational suffix: bielić 'bleach', bieleć 'turn white' 1. a~e 34 2. ) Before imperative ending: nieś wieź Before virile N pl. ending after -on suffix of past passive participle: niesiony wieziony niesieni wiezieny 2.
Kolegą/woźnicą kolego/woźnico koledzy/woźnice = Gpl. kolegów/woźniców kolegach/woźnicach kolegom/woźnicom kolegami/woźnicami = Npl. 48 B. Feminine Nouns. Fem. I: Feminine a-nouns (nominative singular in the vowel -a). Basic Type: Hard consonant (labial, dental, or velar stop, fricative, or sonorant) plus the Nsg. ending -a. Examples: ryba ‘fish’/łąka ‘meadow’ N A G L D I V Singular -a -ę -y/-i ‘-e = Lsg. -ą -o Plural -y/-i = Npl. -Ø -ach -om -ami =Npl. N A G L D I V Singular ryba/ląka rybę/łąkę ryby/łąki rybie/łące = Lsg.
Fem. =Masc. -a ‘-y/-i N -ę = Gpl. A -y/-i -ów G '-e -ach L = Lsg. -om D -ą -ami I -o = Npl. V Singular Plural kolega/woźnica kolegę/woźnicę kolegi/woźnicy koledze/woźnicy = Lsg. kolegą/woźnicą kolego/woźnico koledzy/woźnice = Gpl. kolegów/woźniców kolegach/woźnicach kolegom/woźnicom kolegami/woźnicami = Npl. 48 B. Feminine Nouns. Fem. I: Feminine a-nouns (nominative singular in the vowel -a). Basic Type: Hard consonant (labial, dental, or velar stop, fricative, or sonorant) plus the Nsg. ending -a.