An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Volume 2 by Albert G. MacKey 33*, William J. Hughan 32*, Edward L.

By Albert G. MacKey 33*, William J. Hughan 32*, Edward L. Hawkins 30*

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Further reading: Albany F. : Blandford Press, 1978); David A. E. , Anglo-Saxon History: Basic Readings (New York: Garland, 2000). Afghan Civil War (1928–1929) PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS: Initially, various Afghan tribes vs. the government of Emir Amanullah Khan in Kabul; then Pashtun rebels vs. the Tajik followers of the bandit usurper Habibullah Ghazi PRINCIPAL THEATER(S): Kabul, Afghanistan DECLARATION: None MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES: Initially, rebels sought to reverse the emir’s modern reforms and protect their tribal and Muslim traditions; outlaw leader Habibullah Ghazi wanted to depose the emir and take his place as ruler of Afghanistan; the Pashtuns wished to overthrow the usurper and return the throne to a “legitimate” ruler from the Musabihan clan.

Therefore, when the French violated the terms of the Tafna agreement by crossing the Iron Gates of Oran in the late 1830s, Abd el-Kader was prepared for a long and bloody struggle. Full-scale war broke out in 1840, after Abd el-Kader’s forces (numbering at most 2,000 regulars and volunteers from desert tribes) had sacked the French settlement of Mitidja. General Bugeaud, who had reinforcements from the mainland, sent his mobile columns into the country- side to punish the Algerian’s followers. Using the unconventional tactic of surrounding individual villages, the French general sought to starve the Algerians into submission one settlement at a time.

The eldest of the Musabihan brothers, General Muhammad Nadir Khan (1880–1933), was Amanullah’s cousin and had served as his minister of defense before resigning in protest over the former emir’s military reforms. Just returned from Europe, Nadir Khan organized an army in the late summer of 1929 with plans to retake Kabul. He had originally hoped for direct support from the British, but when he sought their help, they refused him, calculating that if they were to back Nadir Khan and the Musabi- han coup were to fail, the English would then be personae non grata in Kabul regardless of who sat on the throne.

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