Applied Sonochemistry. Uses of Power Ultrasoud in Chemistry by Mason T.J., Lorimer J.P.

By Mason T.J., Lorimer J.P.

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Heating or agitation. A range of commercially important pharmaceuticals, flavours and colourants are now derived from vegetable sources. It has been shown that the solvent extraction of organic compounds contained within the body of plants and seeds is significantly improved by the use of power ultrasound [25]. Impregnation The benefits of sonochemically forced impregnation of porous materials can be found in a wide variety of technologies. One of these is in the preparation of catalysts of the type often termed ªegg shellº where a catalytically active material is supported on the outside of an inert support material.

E. approx. two and a half times larger. In fact only in the case of monatomic gases is the observed absorption, aobs , equal to the classical absorption. In all other cases the observed absorption is greater than the classical absorption by an amount called the excess absorption, aex (given by the expression 2p2 f 2 gB =q c3 ). For complete accuracy, Eq. 16 should be further modified to take account of the compressional viscous forces which act during rarefaction and compression given in Eq. 17.

Bianchi, E. Gotti, L. Toscano, and V. Ragaini, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 1997, 4, 317. 27. -P. F. J. E. Attenburrow, Influence of power ultrasound on leather processing. Part 1, Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 1999, 94, 146 ± 157. 28. S. J. W. J. ), Blackie Academic and Professional, London, 1998, 193 ± 218. 29. C. Price, Pharmaceutical Technology Europe, 1997, October Issue. 30. A. Weissler, J. Chem. , 1948, 28. 31. H. Mark, J. Acoust. Soc. , 1945, 16, 183. 32. E. El'Piner, Ultrasound physical, Chemical and Biological Effects, Consultants Bureau, New York, 1964.

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